The most common type of primary bone cancer. This condition is a type of bone marrow cancer arising from plasma cells that can cause tumors in the bone. Plasma cells are normal cells in the blood that make antibodies.
Also known as Multiple Myeloma when it affects multiple bones. It is called a plasmacytoma when it affects a single bone.
A type of bone marrow cancer made from plasma cells that can cause tumors in the bone that weaken the bone. Plasma cells are normal cells in the blood that make antibodies. Bone marrow is the spongy tissue at the center of bones that produces the body’s blood cells. It is technically the most common type of primary bone cancer. It is not a sarcoma however. It is considered a blood born cancer arising from cells in the blood/bone marrow (a hematological cancer).
Myeloma tumors can weaken the bone and result in a fracture (pathological fracture) and may require various orthopedic treatments and fixation methods to either treat a fracture or prevent a fracture from occurring (prophylactic fixation). Fixation can be with special prosthetic and joint replacements, metal rods or plates and screws. Cement may be used to strengthen the bone and make the fixation methods more durable.
Radiographic imaging is used to help form a diagnosis of Myeloma. These include X-Ray, MRI, CT and Bone Scans.
An example of a Myeloma X-ray is shown. Myeloma may present as a diffuse osteoporosis with the bones throughout the body looking very thin on X-rays.
Most cases cannot be cured, but the condition is very treatable. Treatment includes anti-myeloma medicines to destroy the cancer cells, medicines to prevent and treat associated problems such as bone pain, procedures to prevent or heal fractures caused by the cancer weakening the bone, chemotherapy, radiation, steroids and stem cell transplants.
The empty bone cavity is usually filled with bone graft or bone cement. Bone can be donated (allograft) or taken from the patient themselves (autograft). Fixation devices, such as a plate and screws, may be used in specific situations to prevent postoperative fracture.
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